University Textbooks Books

Put the Cat In the Oven Before You Describe the Kitchen: A Concise, No-Bull Guide To Writing Fiction

There are hundreds of excellent books about writing, but most of them are boring, complicated, or bogged down by filler. This little book is brief and easy to understand. It won’t bore you with mundane grammar rules or the crap you learn in English class, but offers concrete suggestions on how to improve your writing.From lighthearted pointers to hard core truths about the craft, Put the Cat In the Oven is a must-have desk reference for anyone who refuses to put down the pen.

Programming: 4 Manuscripts in 1 book : Python For Beginners - Python 3 Guide - Learn Java - Excel 2016

This Box Includes 4 Manuscripts in 1 book:- Python For Beginners: A Crash Course Guide To Learn Python in 1 Week - Python 3 Guide: A Beginner Crash Course Guide to Learn Python 3 in 1 Week - Learn Java: A Crash Course Guide to Learn Java in 1 Week - Excel 2016: A Comprehensive Beginner’s Guide to Microsoft Excel 2016 Python For Beginners: A Crash Course Guide To Learn Python in 1 Week Here what you'll learn after downloading this Python for Beginners book:✓Introduction✓Chapter 1: Python: A Comprehensive Background ✓Chapter 2: How to Download and Install Python✓Chapter 3: Python Glossary✓Chapter 4: Interacting with Python✓Chapter 5: Using Turtle for a Simple Drawing✓Chapter 6: Variables✓Chapter 7: Loops✓Chapter 8: Native Python Datatypes✓Chapter 9: Python Dictionaries✓Chapter 10: Boolean Logic and Conditional Statements✓Chapter 11: Constructing ‘While’ Loops In PythonChapter 12: Constructing ‘For Loops’ In Python Programming✓Chapter 13: Constructing Classes and Defining ObjectsThis Book Is Perfect For:✓- Total beginners with zero programming experience ✓- Returning professionals who haven’t written code in years✓- Seasoned professionals looking for a fast, simple, crash course in Python Python 3 Programming: A Beginner Crash Course Guide to Learn Python The book is updated to the latest version of Python 3 and the main topics of what the book will be about include:- An Introduction to Python- How to Design a Software- Learn How to Create Data Types and Variables - Conditional Statements- Create and modify Data Structures in Python- Manipulate and Working with Strings- How to Use Files- Automate Coding Tasks By Building Custom Python Functions- SolutionsLearn Java: A Crash Course Guide to Learn Java in 1 WeekThe book is updated to the latest Java versions (8 and 10) and the main topics of what the book will be about include:• The fundamentals of Java• How to program the right way, cutting out the useless fluff!• Use arrays and classes for managing program data.• Write programs that use loops to perform repetitive tasks.• Design and write procedural programs that use methods.• Understanding Java Variables, Arrays, Loops, and Conditional Statements• Use if and switch statements to make decisions in your programs.• Learn the concept of Object Oriented Programming (from fundamentals to advanced)• How to understand and write simple Java programs• And much, much more! Let’s begin our learning.Excel 2016: A Comprehensive Beginner’s Guide to Microsoft Excel 2016This book is intended for....● Those who are completely newbies with Excel!● Those who have basic information of this program!● Those who already have the knowledge but perhaps they want to master it well!Inside, you are going to find topics that include:✓ Excel Essentials✓ The Cell ✓ How to create Formulas✓ How to use Functions. ✓ How To Managing Data, ✓ How To create Charts. ✓ and much more!Get your copy today!

Greek Mythology: Captivating Stories of the Ancient Olympians and Titans (Heroes and Gods, Ancient Myths)

Captivating Stories of the Ancient Olympians and TitansDid you know that Zeus loved many women, both goddesses and mortals?Did you know that he turned himself into golden rain for one damsel who was locked away in a tower, and turned himself into a swan for another beauty?Did you know that he kidnapped one young princess which led to her brother founding the city of Thebes?And did you know that, to protect his own power, Zeus swallowed his first wife, just as Cronus had swallowed his own children in a previous age?Greek myth is full of fascinating tales of Titans and Olympian gods. Some of it makes us wonder if there might be some hint of truth behind those stories, no matter how outrageous they may sound. What parts of those stories were merely symbolic and what parts were literal?This book contains a brief, but unconventional look at the Titans and Olympian gods of Greek mythology. Brief, because a thorough treatment of these legendary super beings could take thousands of pages. Unconventional, because digging for truth is far more interesting than reciting old stories which have little relevance to us today. Attempting to reveal some semblance of truth brings the stories to life. It gives them relevance to our modern world. Here, we will look at many of the more fascinating stories which kept the Greek mortals entertained for hundreds of years. After all, they didn’t have iPhones and computer tablets.Within this book's pages, you'll find the answers to these questions and more. Just some of the questions and topics covered includeThe Nature of MythPrimordial Beings and TitansCreation of the UniverseBirth of the TitansStories of a Primordial UniverseChildren of Cronus and RheaTrouble in HeavenTitans vs. GodsNew Pecking OrderPrometheus and the HumansZeus and His LadiesMore Fun from OlympusMetis and AthenaCecrops and DragonsScroll to the top and select the "BUY" button for instant download

Secrets, Stories and Scandals of Ten Welsh Follies.

Secrets,Stories and Scandals of Ten Welsh Follies contains the stories behind ten weird and wonderful Welsh buildings.If you enjoy unusual tales, quirky human history and delight in the ridiculous and the vain you will enjoy this book. Discover why...The undefeated American Boxing Champion Rocky Marciano lived in a Welsh Folly in Swansea.6ft 3 inch Mr. Jones slept in a strange house in Conwy with his feet hanging out of the window.A pipe smoking shipping magnate upset his wife and built a folly complete with battlements.What possessed William Jones to build the strange folly that is Clytha Castle.Why Lord Mostyn built a track through a house with a road underneath. His strange folly is still inhabited today.These are just a few of the entertaining Welsh Follies in this book. Discover why...A deserted lighthouse on a golden sandy beach has a strange moaning statue at its top.A future king turned his nose up when offered a stately folly castle.There is a bizarre folly clock tower that looks like a lighthouse standing in the middle a boating lake in Cardiff.A magnificent folly tower on Anglesey records the exploits of a one legged man.Bodysgallen Obelisk has upset the neighbours.Discover who erected these strange buildings and why, what secrets lay hidden in their pasts and how they have been treated over the years. Folly hunters have researched odd and strange buildings but never before have the secrets of Welsh follies been told so entertainingly. Every folly has a tale to tell about the special people who built them as if the follies themselves are a window into another age or world, one which is fun and well worth exploring.Scroll up, download this free eBook today and give your chuckle muscles some exercise.

Against Meritocracy: Culture, power and myths of mobility

Meritocracy today involves the idea that whatever your social position at birth, society ought to offer enough opportunity and mobility for ‘talent’ to combine with ‘effort’ in order to ‘rise to the top’. This idea is one of the most prevalent social and cultural tropes of our time, as palpable in the speeches of politicians as in popular culture. In this book Jo Littler argues that meritocracy is the key cultural means of legitimation for contemporary neoliberal culture – and that whilst it promises opportunity, it in fact creates new forms of social division.Against Meritocracy is split into two parts. Part I explores the genealogies of meritocracy within social theory, political discourse and working cultures. It traces the dramatic U-turn in meritocracy’s meaning, from socialist slur to a contemporary ideal of how a society should be organised. Part II uses a series of case studies to analyse the cultural pull of popular ‘parables of progress’, from reality TV to the super-rich and celebrity CEOs, from social media controversies to the rise of the ‘mumpreneur’. Paying special attention to the role of gender, ‘race’ and class, this book provides new conceptualisations of the meaning of meritocracy in contemporary culture and society.

Who is in your Personal Boardroom?: How to choose people, assign roles and have conversations with purpose

A practical way to build the network you need to succeedYou’re only as good as the people you surround yourself with. But when did you last think about who exactly that is, and whether you’ve got the right people around you? How do you know how to select, from your network, the right combination of people to help your be truly effective as a leader and in your career.Drawing on their work with executives and on academic research on the networks of high performers, Zella King and Amanda Scott show how to home in on the 6-12 relationships that drive and sustain success.What you’ll find in this bookDiscover the five steps to designing a Personal Boardroom.Learn how to choose 6-12 members from across your network.Discover the 12 roles you need in your Personal Boardroom, and decide who can play those roles for you.Find out how to make your Personal Boardroom stronger.Act on practical advice to start conversations with a purpose.Enabled by your own Personal Boardroom, use the same framework to provide help to others.Start choosing people, assigning roles and having purposeful conversations today!Reviews of Who is in your Personal Boardroom?"In this thoughtful book Zella and Amanda encourage us to think about what they elegantly describe as our ‘Personal Boardroom’—our current and potential connections and how they may support us in what we want to achieve. Well worth reading."Piers Fallowfield-Cooper, Executive Chairman, Greycon Ltd"Zella King and Amanda Scott have nailed the secret of modern career success: having the right connections and knowing who to ask for help from and how to help others in equal measure. Who is in your Personal Boardroom? should become something of a corporate classic."Julia Hobsbawm, Honorary Visiting Professor in Networking, Cass Business School, and founder, Editorial Intelligence"A brilliant, simple and intuitive way to set about personal and career development."Matt Brittin, Vice President, Northern and Central Europe Operations, GoogleA powerful tool to create a culture of give and take, of collaboration, sponsorship, and mutual support, focused not just on individual performance but also on team and organisation success.Maria O’Donogue, Vice President, Global Learning and Talent Management, The Hertz CorporationAt last, some practical advice on networking! We know good networking drives success, but how do we get better at it? Simply trying harder is not the answer. We need a clear goal and a strategy for achieving it. The Personal Boardroom is a simple but powerful framework for doing just that. For anyone looking for a more effective network, this is essential readingJohn Wells, Professor of Management Practice, Harvard Business School

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Mortality and its Timings: When is Death? (Palgrave Historical Studies in the Criminal Corpse and its Afterlife)

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.This volume provides a series of illuminating perspectives on the timings of death, through in-depth studies of Shakespearean tragedy, criminal execution, embalming practices, fears of premature burial, rumours of Adolf Hitler’s survival, and the legal concept of brain death. In doing so, it explores a number of questions, including: how do we know if someone is dead or not? What do people experience at the moment when they die? Is death simply a biological event that comes about in temporal stages of decomposition, or is it a social event defined through cultures, practices, and commemorations? In other words, when exactly is death? Taken together, these contributions explore how death emerges in a series of stages that are uncertain, paradoxical, and socially contested.   

Bread and Circuses: Theories of Mass Culture As Social Decay

Lively and well written, Bread and Circuses analyzes theories that have treated mass culture as either a symptom or a cause of social decadence. Discussing many of the most influential and representative theories of mass culture, it ranges widely from Greek and Roman origins, through Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, Ortega y Gasset, T. S. Eliot, and the theorists of the Frankfurt Institute, down to Marshall McLuhan and Daniel Bell, Brantlinger considers the many versions of negative classicism and shows how the belief in the historical inevitability of social decay—a belief today perpetuated by the mass media themselves—has become the dominant view of mass culture in our time. While not defending mass culture in its present form, Brantlinger argues that the view of culture implicit in negative classicism obscures the question of how the media can best be used to help achieve freedom and enlightenment on a truly democratic basis.

Dazaifu; The Origin of Reiwa 8 ~Kanzeonji 1~ (Photo Book Book 13)

Dazaifu City located in Kyushu island, JAPAN has more than 1300-year-old history. This fascinating city has many attractive places such as beautiful mountains, parks, shinto shirines, temples and so on. Each place has a story that takes you to the world of imagination. Listen to the conversation of people who actually lived their life and struggled to live up to complete their mission in the past by looking at these old temples and nature around the temple. Feel the whispers of people from the ancient world.

How to Deep Work: Optimize Your Thinking Ability | Mastering Hard Things and Delivering High-value Outcomes - Book 1

How to Deep Work is a guide on how to develop the superpower of deep focus on cognitively-demanding tasks in a distracted world. These efforts create new value, improve your skill, and are hard to replicate. It covers many examples from real-world experiences and actionable items make implementing these ideas quite straightforward.How to Deep Work will make you better at what you do and provide the sense of true fulfillment that comes from craftsmanship. And yet, most people have lost the ability to go deep-spending their days instead in a frantic blur of e-mail and social media, not even realizing there's a better way.A mix of cultural criticism and actionable advice, How to Deep Work takes the reader on a journey through memorable stories-from Carl Jung building a stone tower in the woods to focus his mind, to a social media pioneer buying a round-trip business class ticket to Tokyo to write a book free from distraction in the air-and no-nonsense advice, such as the claim that most serious professionals should quit social media and that you should practice being bored. How to Deep Work is an indispensable guide to anyone seeking focused success in a distracted world.

CSS MADE EASY: A beginners Handbook to easily learn CSS. (CODE CSS EASILY) (Programming Ebooks 3)

This book will help you discover how to learn and Code CSS easily.It will take you from a Beginner to the Expert level in CSS.You will discover the tricks on how to become successful in CSSYou will discover the top most mistakes that most CSS programmers make and how to avoid them.You will discover how to minimize errors that most programmers encounter during coding.

PeA?as arriba (Spanish Edition)

Este libro ha sido convertido a formato digital por una comunidad de voluntarios. Puedes encontrarlo gratis en Internet. Comprar la edición Kindle incluye la entrega inalámbrica.

Dazaifu; The Origin of Reiwa 9 ~Kanzeonji 2~ (Photo Book Book 14)

Dazaifu City located in Kyushu island, JAPAN has more than 1300-year-old history. This fascinating city has many attractive places such as beautiful mountains, parks, shinto shirines, temples and so on. Each place has a story that takes you to the world of imagination. Listen to the conversation of people who actually lived their life and struggled to live up to complete their mission in the past by looking at scenes of the old temple. Feel the whispers of people from the ancient world.

Emotion and Proactivity at Work: Prospects and Dialogues

EPDF and EPUB available Open Access under CC-BY-NC-ND licence. Individuals’ behaviours at work are known to be shaped by cold, or cognitive-motivational, processes as well as hot, or affect-motivational, processes. To date, employee proactivity research has mainly focused on the ‘cold’ side. But emotion has been proposed to ‘energize’ employees’ proactivity, especially in interdependent and uncertain work environments. In this pioneering work, expert scholars offer new thinking on the process by examining how emotion can drive employees’ proactivity in the workplace and how, in turn, that proactivity can shape one’s emotional experiences.

Terrorism, Criminal Law and Politics: The Decline of the Political Offence Exception to Extradition (Transnational Criminal Justice)

Recent atrocities have ensured that terrorism and how to deal with terrorists legally and politically has been the subject of much discussion and debate on the international stage. This book presents a study of changes in the legal treatment of those perpetrating crimes of a political character over several decades. It most centrally deals with the political offence exception and how it has changed. The book looks at this change from an international perspective with a particular focus on the United States. Interdisciplinary in approach, it examines the fields of terrorism and political crime from legal, political science and criminological perspectives. It will be of interest to a broad range of academics and researchers, as well as to policymakers involved in creating new anti-terrorist policies.

Dignity in the 21st Century: Middle East and West (SpringerBriefs in Philosophy)

This book is open access under a CC BY license.This book offers a unique and insightful analysis of Western and Middle Eastern concepts of dignity and illustrates them with examples of everyday life.Dignity in the 21st Century - Middle East and West is unique and insightful for a range of reasons. First, the book is co-authored by scholars from two different cultures (Middle East and West). As a result, the interpretations of dignity covered are broader than those in most Western publications. Second, the ambition of the book is to use examples from everyday life and fiction to debate a range of dignity interpretations supplemented by philosophical and theological theories. Thus, the book is designed to be accessible to a general readership, which is further facilitated because it is published with full open access. Third, the book does not defend one superior theory of dignity, but instead presents six Western approaches and one based on the Koran and then asks whether a common essence can be detected. The answer to the question whether a common essence can be detected between the Koranic interpretation of dignity and the main Western theories (virtue, Kant) is YES. The essence can be seen in dignity as a sense of self-worth, which persons have a duty to develop and respect in themselves and a duty to protect in others. The book ends with two recommendations. First, given the 7 concepts of dignity introduced in the book, meaningful dialogue can only be achieved if conversation partners clarify which variation they are using. Second, future collaborations between philosophers and psychologists might be helpful in moving theoretical knowledge on dignity as a sense of self-worth into practical action. The “scourges” of a sense of self-worth and dignity are identified by psychologists as violence, humiliation, disregard and embarrassment. To know more about how these can be avoided from psychologists, is helpful when protecting a sense of self-worth in others.

By Honor Bound: State and Society in Early Modern Russia

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Russians from all ranks of society were bound together by a culture of honor. Here one of the foremost scholars of early modern Russia explores the intricate and highly stylized codes that made up this culture. Nancy Shields Kollmann describes how these codes were manipulated to construct identity and enforce social norms—and also to defend against insults, to pursue vendettas, and to unsettle communities. She offers evidence for a new view of the relationship of state and society in the Russian empire, and her richly comparative approach enhances knowledge of statebuilding in premodern Europe. By presenting Muscovite state and society in the context of medieval and early modern Europe, she exposes similarities that blur long-standing distinctions between Russian and European history.Through the prism of honor, Kollmann examines the interaction of the Russian state and its people in regulating social relations and defining an individual's rank. She finds vital information in a collection of transcripts of legal suits brought by elites and peasants alike to avenge insult to honor. The cases make clear the conservative role honor played in society as well as the ability of men and women to employ this body of ideas to address their relations with one another and with the state. Kollmann demonstrates that the grand princes—and later the tsars—tolerated a surprising degree of local autonomy throughout their rapidly expanding realm. Her work marks a stark contrast with traditional Russian historiography, which exaggerates the power of the state and downplays the volition of society.

Coming to Terms with Superdiversity: The Case of Rotterdam (IMISCOE Research Series)

This open access book discusses Rotterdam as clear example of a superdiverse city that is only reluctantly coming to terms with this new reality. Rotterdam, as is true for many post-industrial cities, has seen a considerable backlash against migration and diversity: the populist party Leefbaar Rotterdam of the late Pim Fortuyn is already for many years the largest party in the city. At the same time Rotterdam has become a majority minority city where the people of Dutch descent have become a numerical minority themselves. The book explores how Rotterdam is coming to terms with superdiversity, by an analysis of its migration history of the city, the composition of the migrant population and the Dutch working class population, local politics and by a comparison with Amsterdam and other cities. As such it contributes to a better understanding not just of how and why super-diverse cities emerge but also how and why the reaction to a super-diverse reality can be so different.By focusing on different aspects of superdiversity, coming from different angles and various disciplinary backgrounds, this book will be of interest to students and scholars in migration, policy sciences, urban studies and urban sociology, as well as policymakers and the broader public.

Crime and Criminal Justice in Modern Germany (Studies in German History Book 16)

The history of criminal justice in modern Germany has become a vibrant field of research, as demonstrated in this volume. Following an introductory survey, the twelve chapters examine major topics in the history of crime and criminal justice from Imperial Germany, through the Weimar and Nazi eras, to the early postwar years. These topics include case studies of criminal trials, the development of juvenile justice, and the efforts to reform the penal code, criminal procedure, and the prison system. The collection also reveals that the history of criminal justice has much to contribute to other areas of historical inquiry: it explores the changing relationship of criminal justice to psychiatry and social welfare, analyzes representations of crime and criminal justice in the media and literature, and uses the lens of criminal justice to illuminate German social history, gender history, and the history of sexuality.

The Ethical Spirit of EU Law

This open access book seeks to identify the ethical spirit of European Union (EU) law, a context in which we can observe a trend towards increasing references to the terms ‘ethics’ and ‘morality’. This aspect is all the more important because EU law is now affecting more and more areas of national law, including such sensitive ones as the patentability of human life. Especially when unethical behaviour produces legal consequences, the frequent lack of clearly defined concepts remains a challenge, particularly against the background of the principle of legal certainty. This raises the question to which extent the content of these references is determined and whether it is possible to identify an ethical spirit of EU law. Answering that question, in turn, entails addressing the following questions: In references to ethics concerning EU law, can we identify references to a particular theory of practical philosophy at all; and, if so, to one or more normative ethical theories (deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics)? Further, should these non-legal concepts be imported in an unaltered way (“absolute approach”), or be adapted to the legal context (“relative approach”)? This book explores the different layers of EU law (primary law, agreements, secondary law, and tertiary law), including the role of ethics in EU lawmaking and in EU case law, as well as the implementation of relevant EU directives in selected Member States. In addition to the above-mentioned normative philosophical lens, the book also analyzes the findings from the legal lens of EU integration, i.e., especially EU values, human rights and the cornerstone of human dignity.

History and Power in the Study of Law: New Directions in Legal Anthropology (The Anthropology of Contemporary Issues)

Building on earlier work in the anthropology of law and taking a critical stance toward it, June Starr and Jane F. Collier ask, "Should social anthropologists continue to isolate the ‘legal’ as a separate field of study?" To answer this question, they confront critics of legal anthropology who suggest that the subfield is dying and advocate a reintegration of legal anthropology into a renewed general anthropology. Chapters by anthropologists, sociologists, and law professors, using anthropological rather than legal methodologies, provide original analyses of particular legal developments. Some contributors adopt an interpretative approach, focusing on law as a system of meaning; others adopt a materialistic approach, analyzing the economic and political forces that historically shaped relations between social groups. Contributors include Said Armir Arjomand, Anton Blok, Bernard Cohn, George Collier, Carol Greenhouse, Sally Falk Moore, Laura Nader, June Nash, Lawrence Rosen, June Starr, and Joan Vincent.

Ninja Foodi Grill New Complete Cookbook 2021: 365 Days of Indoor Grilling, Air Frying & Most Delicious Recipes for Bringing Family, Friends, and Food Together

Get The Effortless and Time-Saving Recipes to Make Unforgettable and Yummy Meals! This cookbook is a great way to get started with your Ninja Foodi Grill. The recipes are easy to follow and use many ingredients that you already have on hand. This book is so much more than that and has a lot of information and color photos that is helpful to beginners. Ninja Foodi Grill New Complete Cookbook 2021 contains the following categories:: ⭐ Breakfast Recipes ⭐ Snacks and Appetizers ⭐ Vegetarian ⭐ Fish & Seafood ⭐ Poultry ⭐ Beef, Pork and Lamb ⭐ Desserts Get a copy of Ninja Foodi Grill New Complete Cookbook 2021 with Hand-Picked Recipes for Easy and No-Fuss Meals!

Madame Bovary on Trial

In 1857, following the publication of Madame Bovary, Flaubert was charged with having committed an "outrage to public morality and religion." Dominick LaCapra, an intellectual historian with wide-ranging literary interests, here examines this remarkable trial. LaCapra draws on material from Flaubert’s correspondence, the work of literary critics, and Jean-Paul Sartre’s analysis of Flaubert. LaCapra maintains that Madame Bovary is at the intersection of the traditional and the modern novel, simultaneously invoking conventional expectations and subverting them.

Who Will Be the Next President?: A Guide to the U.S. Presidential Election System (Springerbriefs in Law)

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.This book addresses the peculiarities of the current presidential election system not yet addressed in other publications. It argues that any rules for electing a President that may have a chance to replace the current ones should provide an equal representation of states as equal members of the Union, and of the nation as a whole. This book analyzes the National Popular Vote plan and shows that this plan may violate the Supreme Court decisions on the equality of votes cast in statewide popular elections held to choose state electors. That is, the National Popular Vote plan may violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The book proposes a new election system in which the will of the states and the will of the nation as a whole are determined by direct popular elections for President and Vice President in the 50 states and in D.C. This system a) would elect President a candidate who is the choice of both the nation as a whole and of the states as equal members of the Union, b) would let the current system elect a President only if the nation as a whole and the states as equal members of the Union fail to agree on a common candidate, and c) would encourage the candidates to campaign nationwide. The second edition has been updated to include a proposal on how to make established non-major party presidential candidates and independent candidates welcome participants in national televised presidential debates with the major-party candidates.

Reconsidering Constitutional Formation I National Sovereignty: A Comparative Analysis of the Juridification by Constitution (Studies in the History of Law and Justice Book 6)

This open access book can be downloaded from link.springer.comLegal studies and consequently legal history focus on constitutional documents, believing in a nominalist autonomy of constitutional semantics. Reconsidering Constitutional Formation in the late 18th and 19th century, kept historic constitutions from being simply log-books for political experts through a functional approach to the interdependencies between constitution and public discourse. Sovereignty had to be ‘believed’ by the subjects and the political élites. Such a communicative orientation of constitutional processes became palpable in the ‘religious’ affinities of the constitutional preambles. They were held as ‘creeds’ of a new order, not only due to their occasional recourse to divine authority, but rather due to the claim for eternal validity contexts of constitutional guarantees. The communication dependency of constitutions was of less concern in terms of the preamble than the constituents’ big worries about government organisation. Their indecisiveness between monarchical and popular sovereignty was established through the discrediting of the Republic in the Jacobean reign of terror and the ‘renaissance’ of the monarchy in the military resistance against the French revolutionary and later Napoleonic campaigns. The constitutional formation as a legal act of constituting could therefore defend the monarchy from the threat of the people (Albertine Statute 1848), could be a legal decision of a national constituent assembly (Belgian Constitution 1831), could borrow from the old liberties (Polish May Constitution 1791) or try to remain in between by referring to the Nation as sovereign (French September Constitution 1791, Cádiz Constitution 1812). Common to all contexts is the use of national sovereignty as a legal starting point. The consequent differentiation between constituent and constituted power manages to justify the self-commitment of political power in legal terms. National sovereignty is the synonym for the juridification of sovereignty by means of the constitution. The novelty of the constitutions of the late 18th and 19th century is the normativity, the positivity of the constitutional law as one unified law, to be the measure for the legality of all other law. Therefore ReConFort will continue with the precedence of constitution. (www.reconfort.eu)

Reconsidering Constitutional Formation II Decisive Constitutional Normativity: From Old Liberties to New Precedence (Studies in the History of Law and Justice Book 12)

This second volume of ReConFort, published open access, addresses the decisive role of constitutional normativity, and focuses on discourses concerning the legal role of constitutional norms. Taken together with ReConFort I (National Sovereignty), it calls for an innovative reassessment of constitutional history drawing on key categories to convey the legal nature of the constitution itself (national sovereignty, precedence, justiciability of power, judiciary as constituted power).In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, constitutional normativity began to complete the legal fixation of the entire political order. This juridification in one constitutional text resulted in a conceptual differentiation from ordinary law, which extends to alterability and justiciability. The early expressions of this ‘new order of the ages’ suggest an unprecedented and irremediable break with European legal tradition, be it with British colonial governance or the French ancien régime. In fact, while the shift to constitutions as a hierarchically ‘higher’ form of positive law was a revolutionary change, it also drew upon old liberties. The American constitutional discourse, which was itself heavily influenced by British common law, in turn served as an inspiration for a variety of constitutional experiments – from the French Revolution to Napoleon’s downfall, in the halls of the Frankfurt Assembly, on the road to a unified Italy, and in the later theoretical discourse of twentieth-century Austria. If the constitution states the legal rules for the law-making process, then its Kelsian primacy is mandatory.Also included in this volume are the French originals and English translations of two vital documents. The first – Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès’ Du Jury Constitutionnaire (1795) – highlights an early attempt to reconcile the democratic values of the French Revolution with the pragmatic need to legally protect the Revolution. The second – the 1812 draft of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland – presents the ‘constitutional propaganda’ of the Russian Tsar Alexander I to bargain for the support of the Lithuanian and Polish nobility. These documents open new avenues of research into Europe’s constitutional history: one replete with diverse contexts and national experiences, but above all an overarching motif of constitutional decisiveness that served to complete the juridification of sovereignty. (www.reconfort.eu)

Studies in Global Animal Law (BeitrA?ge zum auslA?ndischen A?ffentlichen Recht und VA?lkerrecht Book 290)

This open access book contains 13 contributions on global animal law, preceded by an introduction which explains key concepts and methods. Global Animal Law refers to the sum of legal rules and principles (both state-made and non-state-made) governing the interaction between humans and other animals, on a domestic, local, regional, and international level. Global animal law is the response to the mismatch between almost exclusively national animal-related legislation on the one hand, and the global dimension of the animal issue on the other hand. The chapters lay some historical foundations in the ius naturae et gentium, examine various aspects of how national and international law traditionally deals with animals as commodity; and finally suggest new legal concepts and protective strategies. The book shows numerous entry points for animal issues in international law and at the same time shifts the focus and scope of inquiry.

Los Angeles and the Summer Olympic Games: Planning Legacies (SpringerBriefs in Geography)

This open access book describes the three planning approaches and legacy impacts for the Olympic Games in one locale: the city of Los Angeles, USA. The author critically compares the similarities and differences of the LA Olympics by reviewing the 1932 and 1984 Olympics and by analyzing the concurrent planning process for the 2028 Olympics. The author unravels the conditions that make (or do not make) LA28’s argument “we have staged the Games before, we can do it again” compelling. Setting the bid’s promises into the contemporary local and global mega-event contexts, the author analyzes why LA won the bids, how those wins allowed LA to negotiate concessions with the IOC and NOC, and how legacies were planned, executed, and ultimately evolved. The author concludes with a prediction which 2028 legacy promises might and might not be fulfilled given the local and international Olympic contexts.