Scientific, Technical & Medical Books

Mental Maths Coursebook 4

Collins Mental Maths is a series of six books available from Level 1 to Level 8 which is linked to the curriculum requirement of each primary group as per NCF guidelines.

Mental Maths Coursebook 1

Collins Mental Maths is a series of six books available from Level 1 to Level 8 which is linked to the curriculum requirement of each primary group as per NCF guidelines.

Mental Maths Coursebook 5

Collins Mental Maths is a series of six books available from Level 1 to Level 8 which is linked to the curriculum requirement of each primary group as per NCF guidelines.

The Thomson Ecology Handbook: A practical guide to wildlife legislation for project managers

The world's biodiversity is highly valued but is also highly threatened by various types of human activity. As a consequence, statutory measures are in place to protect habitats and wildlife. These measures range from global to local, and give protection to whole ecosystems or single species. Because there are now legal obligations in place for proposed developments to enhance the biodiversity of the site, and many species are protected by law, it is essential that project managers understand the importance of considering ecology early on in a project. Failure to address these issues can lead to expensive and lengthy project delays. The Thomson Ecology Handbook provides a general overview of current wildlife legislation, guidance and practical techniques, and is aimed at helping project managers understand and plan for ecology. The book describes in simple terms, essential advice about the law on ecology in relation to construction and development. The book also offers practical advice on protected species, helping the project manager to understand more about what ecological surveys and mitigation may be needed. The book can be referred to on site or in meetings and makes sense of what could be seen as a complicated and unknown area for many project managers and people working in construction and development. The book describes wildlife law (planning law, animal welfare law, and case law), planning policy and guidance, protected sites, species and habitats, surveys for each species, mitigation and biodiversity enhancement, and practical techniques for each species, including bats, badgers and great crested newts. You don't need to read it cover to cover, just go straight to the section which you need help with - when you need to.

Solar Energy: The physics and engineering of photovoltaic conversion, technologies and systems

This book uniquely covers both the physics of photovoltaic (PV) cells and the design of PV systems for real-life applications. From the fundamental principles of semiconductor solar cells; through PV technology (crystalline silicon solar cells; thin-film cells; PV modules); to components, design, deployment and performance of PV systems in use. The book is an invaluable reference for researchers, industrial engineers and designers working in solar energy generation. The book is also ideal for university and third-level physics or engineering courses on solar photovoltaics, with exercises to check students’ understanding and reinforce learning. It is the perfect companion to the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on Solar Energy (DelftX, ET.3034TU) presented by co-author Arno Smets. The course is available in English on the nonprofit open source edX.org platform, and in Arabic on edraak.org. Over 100,000 students have already registered for these MOOCs.

Mathematics of Economics and Business

For all students who wish to understand current economic and business literature, knowledge of mathematical methods has become a prerequisite.  Clear and concise, with precise definitions and theorems, Werner and Sotskov cover all the major topics required to gain a firm grounding in this subject including sequences, series, applications in finance, functions, differentiations, differentials and difference equations, optimizations with and without constraints, integrations and much more.Containing exercises and worked examples, precise definitions and theorems as well as economic applications, this book provides the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the mathematical models and tools used in both economics and business.

The Trillion Dollar Shift

Winner of the Gold Axiom Business Book Award 2019 in the Philanthropy / Non Profit / Sustainability category.Over the past 30 years, the world has seen great social improvements. Technology has been developing at an enormous pace and is helping to solve our most pressing social and environmental challenges. Yet, despite this success, our current model of development is still deeply problematic. Natural disasters triggered by climate change have doubled since the 1980s, violence and armed conflict now cost more than 13 percent of GDP, social inequality and youth unemployment is worsening around the world, and climate change threatens the global population with tremendous environmental as well as social problems. Using the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals as a framework, this book sets out how business and capital now have a real opportunity to help resolve these problems. With clear and plentiful examples and cases of how businesses are making a difference, relevant facts and figures to support the cases, and inspiring and instructional information on how businesses can create sustainable value, this highly readable book is a must-read for businesses (large and small) that wish to genuinely support the delivery of the SDGs.The Paris Climate Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) drive change and offer a narrative and an opportunity to all to speak in one language on sustainability. They provide us with a clear set of targets for 2030. Through following the SDGs, opportunities abound for business and capital to unlock markets which offer endless potential for profit while at the same time working towards the Sustainable Development Goals. This book illustrates for business how to make the much-needed Trillion Dollar Shift.

Loss and Damage from Climate Change: Concepts, Methods and Policy Options (Climate Risk Management, Policy and Governance)

This book provides an authoritative insight on the Loss and Damage discourse by highlighting state-of-the-art research and policy linked to this discourse and articulating its multiple concepts, principles and methods. Written by leading researchers and practitioners, it identifies practical and evidence-based policy options to inform the discourse and climate negotiations.With climate-related risks on the rise and impacts being felt around the globe has come the recognition that climate mitigation and adaptation may not be enough to manage the effects from anthropogenic climate change. This recognition led to the creation of the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage in 2013, a climate policy mechanism dedicated to dealing with climate-related effects in highly vulnerable countries that face severe constraints and limits to adaptation. Endorsed in 2015 by the Paris Agreement and effectively considered a third pillar of international climate policy, debate and research on Loss and Damage continues to gain enormous traction. Yet, concepts, methods and tools as well as directions for policy and implementation have remained contested and vague.Suitable for researchers, policy-advisors, practitioners and the interested public, the book furthermore:• discusses the political, legal, economic and institutional dimensions of the issue• highlights normative questions central to the discourse• provides a focus on climate risks and climate risk management.• presents salient case studies from around the world.

Collider Physics within the Standard Model: A Primer (Lecture Notes in Physics Book 937)

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.With this graduate-level primer, the principles of the standard model of particle physics receive a particular skillful, personal and enduring exposition by one of the great contributors to the field. In 2013 the late Prof. Altarelli wrote: The discovery of the Higgs boson and the non-observation of new particles or exotic phenomena have made a big step towards completing the experimental confirmation of the standard model of fundamental particle interactions. It is thus a good moment for me to collect, update and improve my graduate lecture notes on quantum chromodynamics and the theory of electroweak interactions, with main focus on collider physics. I hope that these lectures can provide an introduction to the subject for the interested reader, assumed to be already familiar with quantum field theory and some basic facts in elementary particle physics as taught in undergraduate courses. “These lecture notes are a beautiful example of Guido’s unique pedagogical abilities and scientific vision”. From the Foreword by Gian Giudice

Sylva, Vol. 1 (of 2) Or A Discourse of Forest Trees

This book was converted from its physical edition to the digital format by a community of volunteers. You may find it for free on the web. Purchase of the Kindle edition includes wireless delivery.

The Plant Stem: A Microscopic Aspect

This unique and attractive open access textbook combines the beauty of macroscopic pictures of plant stems with the corresponding colorfully stained images of anatomical micro-structures. In contrast to most botanical textbooks, it presents all the stem characteristics as photographs and shows the microscopic reality.The amount of text is reduced to a minimum, and the scientific information is highlighted with short legends and labeled photographs, allowing readers to focus on the pictures to easily understand how the anatomical structures relate to genetic, ecological, decomposition and technical influences. It includes a chapter devoted to simple anatomical preparation techniques, and further chapters showing the cell content, cell walls, meristematic tissues and stem structures of all major taxonomic units and morphological growth forms in various ecological and climatic regions from subarctic to equatorial latitudes, as well as structures of fossil, subfossil and technically altered wood. This textbook appeals to students and researchers in the fields of plant anatomy, taxonomy, ecology, dendrochronology, history, plant pathology, and evolutionary biology as well as to technologists.

Sustainable Development Goals and Human Rights (Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Rights Book 5)

This open access book analyses the interplay of sustainable development and human rights from different perspectives including fight against poverty, health, gender equality, working conditions, climate change and the role of private actors. Each aspect is addressed from a more human rights-focused angle and a development-policy angle. This allows comparisons between the different approaches but also seeks to close gaps which would remain if only one perspective would be at the center of the discussions.Specifically, the book shows the strong connections between human rights and the objectives of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015. Already the preamble of this document explicitly states that “the 17 Sustainable Development Goals ... seek to realise the human rights of all”. Moreover, several goals and targets of the 2030 Agenda correspond to already existing individual human rights obligations. The contributions of this volume therefore also address how the implementation of human rights and SDGs can reinforce each other, but also point to critical shortcomings of the different approaches.

Marine Carbon Biogeochemistry : A Primer for Earth System Scientists (SpringerBriefs in Earth System Sciences)

This open access book discusses biogeochemical processes relevant to carbon and aims to provide readers, graduate students and researchers, with insight into the functioning of marine ecosystems. A carbon centric approach has been adopted, but other elements are included where relevant or needed. The book focuses on concepts and quantitative understanding of primary production, organic matter mineralization and sediment biogeochemistry. The impact of biogeochemical processes on inorganic carbon dynamics and organic matter transformation are also discussed.

Regional Geological Survey of Hanggai, Xianxia and Chuancun, Zhejiang Province in China: 1:50,000 Geological Maps (The China Geological Survey Series Book 1)

This Open Access book introduces readers to the regional geology of Hanggai, Xianxia and Chuancun, the area between China's northern Zhejiang Province and southern Anhui Province and explores the strata, magmatic rocks and tectonic structures in 1:50,000 scale geological maps. Based on studies of multiple stratigraphic divisions, the standard stratigraphic section of the upper Ordovician Hirnantian in the lower Yangtze region is established, revealing for the first time numerous “Burgess Shale-type” sponge fossils in Hirnantian strata and identifying 10 grapholite fossil belts and various fossil categories, including chitin, trilobites, gastropods, brachiopods, and cephalopods. Moreover, the book identifies for the first time Late Ordovician volcanic events in northern Zhejiang province. The work represents a major contribution to research on Paleozoic strata in the Lower Yangtze region, and sheds new light on understanding the Hirnantian glacial event and biological extinction event in South China by providing a high-precision time scale. In addition, the book opens an important avenue for future research on sponge evolution after the Cambrian life explosion. As such, it offers a unique and valuable asset for researchers and graduate students alike.

Solar Particle Radiation Storms Forecasting and Analysis: The HESPERIA HORIZON 2020 Project and Beyond (Astrophysics and Space Science Library Book 444)

Solar energetic particles (SEPs) emitted from the Sun are a major space weather hazard motivating the development of predictive capabilities. This book presents the results and findings of the HESPERIA (High Energy Solar Particle Events forecasting and Analysis) project of the EU HORIZON 2020 programme. It discusses the forecasting operational tools developed within the project, and presents progress to SEP research contributed by HESPERIA both from the observational as well as the SEP modelling perspective. Using multi-frequency observational data and simulations HESPERIA investigated the chain of processes from particle acceleration in the corona, particle transport in the magnetically complex corona and interplanetary space, to the detection near 1 AU. The book also elaborates on the unique software that has been constructed for inverting observations of relativistic SEPs to physical parameters that can be compared with space-borne measurements at lower energies. Introductory and pedagogical material included in the book make it accessible to students at graduate level and will be useful as background material for Space Physics and Space Weather courses with emphasis on Solar Energetic Particle Event Forecasting and Analysis.This book is published with open access under a CC BY license.

The Economics of Water: Rules and Institutions (Springer Water)

This open access textbook provides a concise introduction to economic approaches and mathematical methods for the study of water allocation and distribution problems. Written in an accessible and straightforward style, it discusses and analyzes central issues in integrated water resource management, water tariffs, water markets, and transboundary water management. By illustrating the interplay between the hydrological cycle and the rules and institutions that govern today’s water allocation policies, the authors develop a modern perspective on water management. Moreover, the book presents an in-depth assessment of the political and ethical dimensions of water management and its institutional embeddedness, by discussing distribution issues and issues of the enforceability of human rights in managing water resources. Given its scope, the book will appeal to advanced undergraduate and graduate students of economics and engineering, as well as practitioners in the water sector, seeking a deeper understanding of economic approaches to the study of water management.

Towards a Climate-Neutral Europe: Curbing the Trend

This book explains the EU’s climate policies in an accessible way, to demonstrate the step-by-step approach that has been used to develop these policies, and the ways in which they have been tested and further improved in the light of experience. The latest changes to the legislation are fully explained throughout. The chapters throughout this volume show that no single policy instrument can bring down greenhouse gas emissions. The challenge facing the EU, as for many countries that have made pledges under the Paris Agreement, is to put together a toolbox of policy instruments that is coherent, delivers emissions reductions, and is cost-effective. The book stands out by the fact it covers the EU’s emissions trading system, the energy sector and other economic sectors, including their development in the context of international climate policy. This accessible book will be of great relevance to students, scholars and policy makers alike.The Open Access version of this book, available at http://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9789276082569, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license.  

Communicating Climate Change: A Guide for Educators (Cornell Series in Environmental Education)

Environmental educators face a formidable challenge when they approach climate change due to the complexity of the science and of the political and cultural contexts in which people live. There is a clear consensus among climate scientists that climate change is already occurring as a result of human activities, but high levels of climate change awareness and growing levels of concern have not translated into meaningful action. Communicating Climate Change provides environmental educators with an understanding of how their audiences engage with climate change information as well as with concrete, empirically tested communication tools they can use to enhance their climate change program.Starting with the basics of climate science and climate change public opinion, Armstrong, Krasny, and Schuldt synthesize research from environmental psychology and climate change communication, weaving in examples of environmental education applications throughout this practical book. Each chapter covers a separate topic, from how environmental psychology explains the complex ways in which people interact with climate change information to communication strategies with a focus on framing, metaphors, and messengers. This broad set of topics will aid educators in formulating program language for their classrooms at all levels. Communicating Climate Change uses fictional vignettes of climate change education programs and true stories from climate change educators working in the field to illustrate the possibilities of applying research to practice. Armstrong et al, ably demonstrate that environmental education is an important player in fostering positive climate change dialogue and subsequent climate change action.Thanks to generous funding from Cornell University, the ebook editions of this book are available as Open Access from Cornell Open (cornellopen.org) and other Open Access repositories.

Transitions in Energy Efficiency and Demand: The Emergence, Diffusion and Impact of Low-Carbon Innovation (Routledge Studies in Energy Transitions)

The Open Access version of this book, available at http://www.tandfebooks.com/doi/view/10.4324/9781351127264, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license. Meeting the goals enshrined in the Paris Agreement and limiting global temperature increases to less than 2°C above pre-industrial levels demands rapid reductions in global carbon dioxide emissions. Reducing energy demand has a central role in achieving this goal, but existing policy initiatives have been largely incremental in terms of the technological and behavioural changes they encourage. Against this background, this book develops a sociotechnical approach to the challenge of reducing energy demand and illustrates this with a number of empirical case studies from the United Kingdom. In doing so, it explores the emergence, diffusion and impact of low-energy innovations, including electric vehicles and smart meters. The book has the dual aim of improving the academic understanding of sociotechnical transitions and energy demand and providing practical recommendations for public policy. Combining an impressive range of contributions from key thinkers in the field, this book will be of great interest to energy students, scholars and decision-makers.

Narratives of Low-Carbon Transitions: Understanding Risks and Uncertainties (Routledge Studies in Energy Transitions)

"The Open Access version of this book, available at https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429458781, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license." This book examines the uncertainties underlying various strategies for a low-carbon future. Most prominently, such strategies relate to transitions in the energy sector, on both the supply and the demand side. At the same time they interact with other sectors, such as industrial production, transport, and building, and ultimately require new behaviour patterns at household and individual levels. Currently, much research is available on the effectiveness of these strategies but, in order to successfully implement comprehensive transition pathways, it is crucial not only to understand the benefits but also the risks.Filling this gap, this volume provides an interdisciplinary, conceptual framework to assess risks and uncertainties associated with low-carbon policies and applies this consistently across 11 country cases from around the world, illustrating alternative transition pathways in various contexts. The cases are presented as narratives, drawing on stakeholder-driven research efforts. They showcase diverse empirical evidence reflecting the complex challenges to and potential negative consequences of such pathways. Together, they enable the reader to draw valuable lessons on the risks and uncertainties associated with choosing the envisaged transition pathways, as well as ways to manage the implementation of these pathways and ultimately enable sustainable and lasting social and environmental effects.This book will be of great interest to students, scholars, and practitioners of environmental and energy policy, low-carbon transitions, renewable energy technologies, climate change action, and sustainability in general.

Rewilding European Landscapes

Some European lands have been progressively alleviated of human pressures, particularly traditional agriculture in remote areas. This book proposes that this land abandonment can be seen as an opportunity to restore natural ecosystems via rewilding. We define rewilding as the passive management of ecological successions having in mind the long-term goal of restoring natural ecosystem processes. The book aims at introducing the concept of rewilding to scientists, students and practitioners. The first part presents the theory of rewilding in the European context. The second part of the book directly addresses the link between rewilding, biodiversity, and habitats. The third and last part is dedicated to practical aspects of the implementation of rewilding as a land management option. We believe that this book will both set the basis for future research on rewilding and help practitioners think about how rewilding can take place in areas under their management.

Nanoinformatics

This open access book brings out the state of the art on how informatics-based tools are used and expected to be used in nanomaterials research. There has been great progress in the area in which “big-data” generated by experiments or computations are fully utilized to accelerate discovery of new materials, key factors, and design rules. Data-intensive approaches play indispensable roles in advanced materials characterization. "Materials informatics" is the central paradigm in the new trend. "Nanoinformatics" is its essential subset, which focuses on nanostructures of materials such as surfaces, interfaces, dopants, and point defects, playing a critical role in determining materials properties. There have been significant advances in experimental and computational techniques to characterize individual atoms in nanostructures and to gain quantitative information. The collaboration of researchers in materials science and information science is growing actively and is creating a new trend in materials science and engineering.

Tourism and Global Environmental Change: Ecological, Economic, Social and Political Interrelationships (Contemporary Geographies of Leisure, Tourism and Mobility)

This fascinating book is the first comprehensive analysis of the economic, social and political interrelationships between tourism and global environmental change: one of the most significant issues facing humankind today. Its contributors argue that the impacts of these changes are potentially extremely serious both for the tourism industry, and for the communities dependent upon it.Integrating knowledge from the social and physical sciences, this significant book explores they key issues surrounding global environmental change, as well as government and industry willingness to meet the challenges posed by it. Divided into four main sections, it investigates:the tourism and global environmental change relationship in specific environmentsglobal issues related to environmental change differing perceptions of global environmental change held by tourists and the tourist industry.Comprehensive in scope, topical and integrative, this key text is essential reading for students, scholars and researchers in all aspects of tourism, geography and environmental studies.

Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Astronomy and Astrophysics Library)

This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license.The third edition of this indispensable book in radio interferometry provides extensive updates to the second edition, including results and technical advances from the past decade; discussion of arrays that now span the full range of the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum observable from the ground, 10 MHz to 1 THz; an analysis of factors that affect array speed; and an expanded discussion of digital signal-processing techniques and of scintillation phenomena and the effects of atmospheric water vapor on image distortion, among many other topics.With its comprehensiveness and detailed exposition of all aspects of the theory and practice of radio interferometry and synthesis imaging, this book has established itself as a standard reference in the field. It begins with an overview of the basic principles of radio astronomy, a short history of the development of radio interferometry, and an elementary discussion of the operation of an interferometer. From this foundation, it delves into the underlying relationships of interferometry, sets forth the coordinate systems and parameters to describe synthesis imaging, and examines configurations of antennas for multielement synthesis arrays. Various aspects of the design and response of receiving systems are discussed, as well as the special requirements of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI), image reconstruction, and recent developments in image enhancement techniques and astrometric observations. Also discussed are propagation effects in the media between the source and the observer, and radio interference, factors that limit performance. Related techniques are introduced, including intensity interferometry, optical interferometry, lunar occultations, tracking of satellites in Earth orbit, interferometry for remote Earth sensing, and holographic measurements of antenna surfaces. This book will benefit anyone who is interested in radio interferometry techniques for astronomy, astrometry, geodesy, or electrical engineering.

Advances in Wheat Genetics: From Genome to Field: Proceedings of the 12th International Wheat Genetics Symposium

This proceedings is a collection of 46 selected papers that were presented at the 12th International Wheat Genetics Symposium (IWGS). Since the launch of the wheat genome sequencing project in 2005, the arrival of draft genome sequences has marked a new era in wheat genetics and genomics, catalyzing rapid advancement in the field. This book provides a comprehensive review of the forefront of wheat research, across various important topics such as germplasm and genetic diversity, cytogenetics and allopolyploid evolution, genome sequencing, structural and functional genomics, gene function and molecular biology, biotic stress, abiotic stress, grain quality, and classical and molecular breeding. Following an introduction, 9 parts of the book are dedicated to each of these topics. A final, 11th part entitled “Toward Sustainable Wheat Production” contains 7 excellent papers that were presented in the 12th IWGS Special Session supported by the OECD. With rapid population growth and radical climate changes, the world faces a global food crisis and is in need of another Green Revolution to boost yields of wheat and other widely grown staple crops. Although this book focuses on wheat, many of the newly developed techniques and results presented here can be applied to other plant species with large and complex genomes. As such, this volume is highly recommended for all students and researchers in wheat sciences and related plant sciences and for those who are interested in stable food production and food security.

Status and Dynamics of Forests in Germany : Results of the National Forest Monitoring (Ecological Studies Book 237)

This book is an open access publication.Forest ecosystems in Central Europe are changing as a result of anthropogenic influences and changing climate conditions. As such, a large-scale monitoring programme was undertaken in order to understand the influence of site modification, deposition of air pollutants, and climate.This book presents the scientific findings of this study for Germany, including the major challenges with regard to the future preservation and management of forest ecosystems under environmental change. In addition, it addresses a number of central questions: what are the main factors affecting forest stands and soil integrity? How, and how rapidly, are forest ecosystems changing? How diverse are the changes across Germany? What will be the main risks in sustainable forest management in the future? And how can policy support the development and maintenance of adaptive and resilient forests that provide essential ecosystem services, today and in the future?Helping readers understand the importance of soils and related ecosystem processes for future sustainable forestry, and sharing essential findings on environmental change and related changes in forest status and dynamics, the book is a valuable resource for researchers and policymakers interested in science-based decisions.

The Geopolitics of the Global Energy Transition (Lecture Notes in Energy Book 73)

The world is currently undergoing an historic energy transition, driven by increasingly stringent decarbonisation policies and rapid advances in low-carbon technologies. The large-scale shift to low-carbon energy is disrupting the global energy system, impacting whole economies, and changing the political dynamics within and between countries. This open access book, written by leading energy scholars, examines the economic and geopolitical implications of the global energy transition, from both regional and thematic perspectives. The first part of the book addresses the geopolitical implications in the world’s main energy-producing and energy-consuming regions, while the second presents in-depth case studies on selected issues, ranging from the geopolitics of renewable energy, to the mineral foundations of the global energy transformation, to governance issues in connection with the changing global energy order. Given its scope, the book will appeal to researchers in energy, climate change and international relations, as well as to professionals working in the energy industry.

Handbook of Mathematical Geosciences: Fifty Years of IAMG

This Open Access handbook published at the IAMG's 50th anniversary, presents a compilation of invited path-breaking research contributions by award-winning geoscientists who have been instrumental in shaping the IAMG. It contains 45 chapters that are categorized broadly into five parts (i) theory, (ii) general applications, (iii) exploration and resource estimation, (iv) reviews, and (v) reminiscences covering related topics like mathematical geosciences, mathematical morphology, geostatistics, fractals and multifractals, spatial statistics, multipoint geostatistics, compositional data analysis, informatics, geocomputation, numerical methods, and chaos theory in the geosciences.

Nature-Based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas: Linkages between Science, Policy and Practice (Theory and Practice of Urban Sustainability Transitions)

This open access book brings together research findings and experiences from science, policy and practice to highlight and debate the importance of nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation in urban areas. Emphasis is given to the potential of nature-based approaches to create multiple-benefits for society.The expert contributions present recommendations for creating synergies between ongoing policy processes, scientific programmes and practical implementation of climate change and nature conservation measures in global urban areas.Except where otherwise noted, this book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Observing the Volcano World: Volcano Crisis Communication (Advances in Volcanology)

This open access book provides a comprehensive overview of volcanic crisis research, the goal being to establish ways of successfully applying volcanology in practice and to identify areas that need to be addressed for future progress. It shows how volcano crises are managed in practice, and helps to establish best practices.  Consequently the book brings together authors from all over the globe who work with volcanoes, ranging from observatory volcanologists, disaster practitioners and government officials to NGO-based and government practitioners to address three key aspects of volcanic crises. First, the book explores the unique nature of volcanic hazards, which makes them a particularly challenging threat to forecast and manage, due in part to their varying spatial and temporal characteristics. Second, it presents lessons learned on how to best manage volcanic events based on a number of crises that have shaped our understanding of volcanic hazards and crises management. Third, it discusses the diverse and wide-ranging aspects of communication involved in crises, which merge old practices and new technologies to accommodate an increasingly challenging and globalised world. The information and insights presented here are essential to tapping established knowledge, moving towards more robust volcanic crises management, and understanding how the volcanic world is perceived from a range of standpoints and contexts around the globe.

Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Nuclear Risks: Prediction and Assessment Beyond the Fukushima Accident

This book covers seismic probabilistic risk assessment (S-PRA) and related studies which have become more important to increase the safety of nuclear facilities against earthquakes and tsunamis in the face of the many uncertainties after the Fukushima accident. The topics are (1) Active faults and active tectonics important for seismic hazard assessment of nuclear facilities,(2) Seismic source modeling and simulation and modeling techniques indispensable for strong ground motion prediction, and (3) PRA with external hazard and risk communication. The Fukushima accident has showed us the limitations of the deterministic evaluation approach to external events (an earthquake and tsunami) in which there are many uncertainties. Furthermore, public anxiety regarding nuclear safety because of an unexpected threat caused by an earthquake or tsunami is growing. The current policy on the estimation of the design basis of ground motion as well as tsunami height still has not been improved following the Fukushima accident.  In particular, the risk concept in a nuclear system regarding seismic motion and a tsunami beyond the design basis is indispensable. Therefore, research and development for PRA enhancing nuclear safety are being actively pursued not only in Japan but also worldwide. This book provides an opportunity for readers to consider the future direction of nuclear safety vis-à-vis natural disasters.

Nanoparticle Engineering for Chemical-Mechanical Planarization: Fabrication of Next-Generation Nanodevices

In the development of next-generation nanoscale devices, higher speed and lower power operation is the name of the game. Increasing reliance on mobile computers, mobile phone, and other electronic devices demands a greater degree of speed and power. As chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) progressively becomes perceived less as black art and more as a cutting-edge technology, it is emerging as the technology for achieving higher performance devices.Nanoparticle Engineering for Chemical-Mechanical Planarization explains the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles according to each step in the CMP process, including dielectric CMP, shallow trend isolation CMP, metal CMP, poly isolation CMP, and noble metal CMP. The authors provide a detailed guide to nanoparticle engineering of novel CMP slurry for next-generation nanoscale devices below the 60nm design rule. They present design techniques using polymeric additives to improve CMP performance. The final chapter focuses on novel CMP slurry for the application to memory devices beyond 50nm technology.Most books published on CMP focus on the polishing process, equipment, and cleaning. Even though some of these books may touch on CMP slurries, the methods they cover are confined to conventional slurries and none cover them with the detail required for the development of next-generation devices. With its coverage of fundamental concepts and novel technologies, this book delivers expert insight into CMP for all current and next-generation systems.

Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Storage and Delivery: Fundamentals and Applications (Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion)

Although recognized as an important component of all energy storage and conversion technologies, electrochemical supercapacitators (ES) still face development challenges in order to reach their full potential. A thorough examination of development in the technology during the past decade, Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Storage and Delivery: Fundamentals and Applications provides a comprehensive introduction to the ES from technical and practical aspects and crystallization of the technology, detailing the basics of ES as well as its components and characterization techniques. The book illuminates the practical aspects of understanding and applying the technology within the industry and provides sufficient technical detail of newer materials being developed by experts in the field which may surface in the future. The book discusses the technical challenges and the practical limitations and their associated parameters in ES technology. It also covers the structure and options for device packaging and materials choices such as electrode materials, electrolyte, current collector, and sealants based on comparison of available data.Supplying an in depth understanding of the components, design, and characterization of electrochemical supercapacitors, the book has wide-ranging appeal to industry experts and those new to the field. It can be used as a reference to apply to current work and a resource to foster ideas for new devices that will further the technology as it becomes a larger part of main stream energy storage.

Radiation Monitoring and Dose Estimation of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

This book provides comprehensive research findings related to the environmental monitoring of radiation, levels of radioactive nuclides in various environments and dose estimation in residents after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident caused severe environmental contamination with radioactive nuclides. At the beginning of the book, a technical review written by a leading researcher of nuclear reactor technology explains what happened at the power plant. The review is followed by a commentary from a former member of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, providing the reader with easily understandable information about the concept of radiation dosage. In the main part of the book, a series of scientific reports presents valuable data on the radiation surveys of the environment, environmental radioactivity, transfer models and parameters of radioactive nuclides and dose assessment among residents. These reports present a wide range of findings from the research carried out in a variety of activities by large governmental organizations as well as by small private groups and individuals. The reader thus will find a large collection of valuable and interesting data related to the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides after the Fukushima accident. Although earlier reports on this issue have been made public, this book is the only publication to fully depict the actual situation by providing comprehensive data obtained by diverse organizations and individuals.

China's Energy Revolution in the Context of the Global Energy Transition (Advances in Oil and Gas Exploration & Production)

This open access book is an encyclopaedic analysis of the current and future energy system of the world’s most populous country and second biggest economy. What happens in China impacts the planet. In the past 40 years China has achieved one of the most remarkable economic growth rates in history. Its GDP has risen by a factor of 65, enabling 850,000 people to rise out of poverty. Growth on this scale comes with consequences. China is the world’s biggest consumer of primary energy and the world’s biggest emitter of CO2 emissions. Creating a prosperous and harmonious society that delivers economic growth and a high quality of life for all will require radical change in the energy sector, and a rewiring of the economy more widely. In China’s Energy Revolution in the Context of the Global Energy Transition, a team of researchers from the Development Research Center of the State Council of China and Shell International examine how China can revolutionise its supply and use of energy. They examine the entire energy system: coal, oil, gas, nuclear, renewables and new energies in production, conversion, distribution and consumption. They compare China with case studies and lessons learned in other countries. They ask which technology, policy and market mechanisms are required to support the change and they explore how international cooperation can smooth the way to an energy revolution in China and across the world. And, they create and compare scenarios on possible pathways to a future energy system that is low-carbon, affordable, secure and reliable.

Masculinities in Forests: Representations of Diversity (The Earthscan Forest Library)

Masculinities in Forests: Representations of Diversity demonstrates the wide variability in ideas about, and practice of, masculinity in different forests, and how these relate to forest management. While forestry is widely considered a masculine domain, a significant portion of the literature on gender and development focuses on the role of women, not men. This book addresses this gap and also highlights how there are significant, demonstrable differences in masculinities from forest to forest. The book develops a simple conceptual framework for considering masculinities, one which both acknowledges the stability or enduring quality of masculinities, but also the significant masculinity-related options available to individual men within any given culture. The author draws on her own experiences, building on her long-term experience working globally in the conservation and development worlds, also observing masculinities among such professionals. The core of the book examines masculinities, based on long-term ethnographic research in the rural Pacific Northwest of the US; Long Segar, East Kalimantan; and Sitiung, West Sumatra, both in Indonesia. The author concludes by pulling together the various strands of masculine identities and discussing the implications of these various versions of masculinity for forest management. This book will be essential reading for students and scholars of forestry, gender studies and conservation and development, as well as practitioners and NGOs working in these fields.The Open Access version of this book, available at https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780367815776, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license.

Chinaa??s Gas Development Strategies (Advances in Oil and Gas Exploration & Production)

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book examines how China can increase the share of natural gas in its energy system. China’s energy strategy has global ramifications and impact, and central to this strategy is the country’s transition from coal to gas. The book presents the culmination of a two-year collaboration between the Development Research Center of the State Council (DRC) and Shell. With the Chinese government’s strategic aim to increase the share of gas in the energy mix from 5.8% in 2014 to 10% and 15% in 2020 and 2030 respectively, the book outlines how China can achieve its gas targets. Providing both quantifiable metrics and policy measures for the transition, it is a much needed addition to the literature on Chinese energy policy. The research and the resulting recommendations of this study have fed directly into the Chinese government’s 13th Five-Year Plan, and provide unique insights into the Chinese government and policy-making.Due to its global impact, the book is a valuable resource for policy makers in both China and the rest of the world.

Climate Smart Agriculture: Building Resilience to Climate Change (Natural Resource Management and Policy Book 52)

This book is open access under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license.The book uses an economic lens to identify the main features of climate-smart agriculture (CSA), its likely impact, and the challenges associated with its implementation.  Drawing upon theory and concepts from agricultural development, institutional, and resource economics, this book expands and formalizes the conceptual foundations of CSA. Focusing on the adaptation/resilience dimension of CSA, the text embraces a mixture of conceptual analyses, including theory, empirical and policy analysis, and case studies, to look at adaptation and resilience through three possible avenues: ex-ante reduction of vulnerability, increasing adaptive capacity, and ex-post risk coping. The book is divided into three sections. The first section provides conceptual framing, giving an overview of the CSA concept and grounding it in core economic principles. The second section is devoted to a set of case studies illustrating the economic basis of CSA in terms of reducing vulnerability, increasing adaptive capacity and ex-post risk coping. The final section addresses policy issues related to climate change. Providing information on this new and important field in an approachable way, this book helps make sense of CSA and fills intellectual and policy gaps by defining the concept and placing it within an economic decision-making framework. This book will be of interest to agricultural, environmental, and natural resource economists, development economists, and scholars of development studies, climate change, and agriculture. It will also appeal to policy-makers, development practitioners, and members of governmental and non-governmental organizations interested in agriculture, food security and climate change.

The Beauty of Geology: Art of Geology Mapping in China Over a Century

This open access book contains a collection of rare geologic maps and figures made by Chinese geologists in the last century. Preserved in National Geological Archives of China, these artworks demonstrate the development and innovation of geological mapping technology in China in the past 100 years. The collections are highly scientific and artistic, with most of the hand-drawn maps featured with traditional Chinese painting techniques, while the newer ones being more accurate and embedded with more scientific information with the aid of computer techniques.

Ionospheric Multi-Spacecraft Analysis Tools: Approaches for Deriving Ionospheric Parameters (ISSI Scientific Report Series Book 17)

This open access book provides a comprehensive toolbox of analysis techniques for ionospheric multi-satellite missions. The immediate need for this volume was motivated by the ongoing ESA Swarm satellite mission, but the tools that are described are general and can be used for any future ionospheric multi-satellite mission with comparable instrumentation. In addition to researching the immediate plasma environment and its coupling to other regions, such a mission aims to study the Earth’s main magnetic field and its anomalies caused by core, mantle, or crustal sources. The parameters for carrying out this kind of work are examined in these chapters. Besides currents, electric fields, and plasma convection, these parameters include ionospheric conductance, Joule heating, neutral gas densities, and neutral winds.

The Potato Crop: Its Agricultural, Nutritional and Social Contribution to Humankind

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book provides a fresh, updated and science-based perspective on the current status and prospects of the diverse array of topics related to the potato, and was written by distinguished scientists with hands-on global experience in research aspects related to potato. The potato is the third most important global food crop in terms of consumption. Being the only vegetatively propagated species among the world’s main five staple crops creates both issues and opportunities for the potato: on the one hand, this constrains the speed of its geographic expansion and its options for international commercialization and distribution when compared with commodity crops such as maize, wheat or rice. On the other, it provides an effective insulation against speculation and unforeseen spikes in commodity prices, since the potato does not represent a good traded on global markets. These two factors highlight the underappreciated and underrated role of the potato as a dependable nutrition security crop, one that can mitigate turmoil in world food supply and demand and political instability in some developing countries. Increasingly, the global role of the potato has expanded from a profitable crop in developing countries to a crop providing income and nutrition security in developing ones. This book will appeal to academics and students of crop sciences, but also policy makers and other stakeholders involved in the potato and its contribution to humankind’s food security.

14th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM2019): Belgorod State Technological University named after V. G. Shukhov, 23a??27 September 2019, ... in Earth and Environmental Sciences)

This open access proceedings of the 14th International Council for Applied Mineralogy Congress (ICAM) in Belgorod, Russia cover a wide range of topics including applied mineralogy, advanced and construction materials, ore and industrial minerals, mineral exploration, cultural heritage, etc. It includes contributions to geometallurgy, industrial minerals, oil and gas reservoirs as well as stone artifacts and their preservation. The International Congress on Applied Mineralogy strengthens the relation between the research on applied mineralogy and the industry.

Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems: TAIGA Concept

This book is the comprehensive volume of the TAIGA (“a great river ” in Japanese) project. Supported by the Japanese government, the project examined the hypothesis that the subseafloor fluid advection system (subseafloor TAIGA)   can be categorized into four types, TAIGAs of sulfur, hydrogen, carbon (methane), and iron, according to the most dominant reducing substance, and the chemolithoautotrophic bacteria/archaea that are inextricably associated with respective types of TAIGAs which are strongly affected by their geological background such as surrounding host rocks and tectonic settings. Sub-seafloor ecosystems are sustained by hydrothermal circulation or TAIGA that carry chemical energy to the chemosynthetic microbes living in an extreme environment.  The results of the project have been summarized comprehensively in 50 chapters, and this book provides an overall introduction and relevant topics on the mid-ocean ridge system of the Indian Ocean and on the arc-backarc systems of the Southern Mariana Trough and Okinawa Trough.

Miniaturization in Sample Preparation

The miniaturization of traditional sample preparation techniques (e.g., solid-phase extraction or solvent extraction) led to the development of environmentally benign analytical methods. This book aims to provide an overview of the challenges and achievements in the application of the miniaturized sample preparation methods in analytical laboratories.

Management of Research Infrastructures: A South African Funding Perspective

This open access book provides an overview of the building blocks necessary for managing, steering and guiding the establishment of a research infrastructure (RI). It offers valuable insights into RI investment, access and management at the academic, grants management, agency and policy level, and serves as a useful guide for the research community, students, and those in the private sector wishing to understand the approaches and opportunities involved in the establishment, maintenance and management of research infrastructure platforms. Presenting a holistic view of RI investment and granting cycles from a South African perspective, the book’s target audience includes those working in science diplomacy, policymaking and science grants councils (especially in Africa) as well as funders and donors.

Perspectives on European Earthquake Engineering and Seismology: Volume 1 (Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering Book 34)

This book collects 5 keynote and 15 topic lectures presented at the 2nd European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (2ECEES), held in Istanbul, Turkey, from August 24 to 29, 2014. The conference was organized by the Turkish Earthquake Foundation - Earthquake Engineering Committee and Prime Ministry, Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency under the auspices of the European Association for Earthquake Engineering (EAEE) and European Seismological Commission (ESC).The book’s twenty state-of-the-art papers were written by the most prominent researchers in Europe and address a comprehensive collection of topics on earthquake engineering, as well as interdisciplinary subjects such as engineering seismology and seismic risk assessment and management. Further topics include engineering seismology, geotechnical earthquake engineering, seismic performance of buildings, earthquake-resistant engineering structures, new techniques and technologies and managing risk in seismic regions. The book also presents the Third Ambraseys Distinguished Award Lecture given by Prof. Robin Spence in honor of Prof. Nicholas N. Ambraseys.The aim of this work is to present the state-of-the art and latest practices in the fields of earthquake engineering and seismology, with Europe’s most respected researchers addressing recent and ongoing developments while also proposing innovative avenues for future research and development. Given its cutting-edge content and broad spectrum of topics, the book offers a unique reference guide for researchers in these fields.Audience: This book is of interest to civil engineers in the fields of geotechnical and structural earthquake engineering; scientists and researchers in the fields of seismology, geology and geophysics. Not only scientists, engineers and students, but also those interested in earthquake hazard assessment and mitigation will find in this book the most recent advances.

Perspectives on European Earthquake Engineering and Seismology: Volume 2 (Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering Book 39)

This book collects 4 keynote and 15 theme lectures presented at the 2nd European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (2ECEES), held in Istanbul, Turkey, from August 24 to 29, 2014. The conference was organized by the Turkish Earthquake Foundation - Earthquake Engineering Committee and Prime Ministry, Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency under the auspices of the European Association for Earthquake Engineering (EAEE) and European Seismological Commission (ESC).The book’s nineteen state-of-the-art chapters were written by the most prominent researchers in Europe and address a comprehensive collection of topics on earthquake engineering, as well as interdisciplinary subjects such as engineering seismology and seismic risk assessment and management. Further topics include engineering seismology, geotechnical earthquake engineering, seismic performance of buildings, earthquake-resistant engineering structures, new techniques and technologies, and managing risk in seismic regions. The book also presents the First Professor Inge Lehmann Distinguished Award Lecture given by Prof. Shamita Das in honor of Prof. Dr. Inge Lehmann.The aim of this work is to present the state-of-the art and latest practices in the fields of earthquake engineering and seismology, with Europe’s most respected researchers addressing recent and ongoing developments while also proposing innovative avenues for future research and development. Given its cutting-edge content and broad spectrum of topics, the book offers a unique reference guide for researchers in these fields.Audience: This book is of interest to civil engineers in the fields of geotechnical and structural earthquake engineering; scientists and researchers in the fields of seismology, geology and geophysics. Not only scientists, engineers and students, but also those interested in earthquake hazard assessment and mitigation will find in this book the most recent advances.

3D Recording and Interpretation for Maritime Archaeology (Coastal Research Library Book 31)

This open access peer-reviewed volume was inspired by the UNESCO UNITWIN Network for Underwater Archaeology International Workshop held at Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia in November 2016. Content is based on, but not limited to, the work presented at the workshop which was dedicated to 3D recording and interpretation for maritime archaeology. The volume consists of contributions from leading international experts as well as up-and-coming early career researchers from around the globe. The content of the book includes recording and analysis of maritime archaeology through emerging technologies, including both practical and theoretical contributions. Topics include photogrammetric recording, laser scanning, marine geophysical 3D survey techniques, virtual reality, 3D modelling and reconstruction, data integration and Geographic Information Systems.The principal incentive for this publication is the ongoing rapid shift in the methodologies of maritime archaeology within recent years and a marked increase in the use of 3D and digital approaches. This convergence of digital technologies such as underwater photography and photogrammetry, 3D sonar, 3D virtual reality, and 3D printing has highlighted a pressing need for these new methodologies to be considered together, both in terms of defining the state-of-the-art and for consideration of future directions. As a scholarly publication, the audience for the book includes students and researchers, as well as professionals working in various aspects of archaeology, heritage management, education, museums, and public policy. It will be of special interest to those working in the field of coastal cultural resource management and underwater archaeology but will also be of broader interest to anyone interested in archaeology and to those in other disciplines who are now engaging with 3D recording and visualization.