Science & Nature Medicine Books

Hypocalcaemia, Hypoparathyroidism and Vitamin D Deficiency

It must be ensured that the patient does not have pseudohypocalcaemia caused by hypoalbuminaemia. When serum albumin is reduced by 10 g/l, serum/plasma calcium is reduced by 0.2 mmol/l. This explains why severe illness and malnutrition are often associated with mild asymptomatic hypocalcaemia; in these cases the concentration of serum/plasma ionized calcium remains normal and should be used for reference. Many laboratories report the albumin-corrected calcium concentration. The cause of hypocalcaemia should be determined before replacement therapy is initiated. The concentration of calcium is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, calcitonin and phosphate. The reference values for calcium vary between different laboratories and by age (a typical reference range of plasma calcium in persons over 18 years of age is e.g. 2.15-2.51 mmol/l; the concentration of ionized calcium is approximately 50% of total calcium concentration).

Asthma: Symptoms and Diagnosis

Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways. Persons susceptible to asthma get symptoms associated with the inflammation. The symptoms usually include an airway constriction of variable degree, which is relieved spontaneously or with treatment. Common symptoms include dyspnoea, wheezing and prolonged cough. The inflammation increases the sensitivity of the airways to many irritants. Auscultation of the lungs, spirometry, bronchodilatation test, peak expiratory flow (PEF) monitoring and chest x-ray are the basic examinations. Other examinations may be performed in uncertain cases or when a more exact classification of the disease is pursued.

Genetic Counselling

Every doctor will need at some stage to answer questions relating to the hereditary nature of diseases and discuss relevant issues with the patient. A patient should be referred to a genetics specialist when hereditary issues require further investigation, for example when a condition occurring in family members or relatives is suspected to be genetic and the diagnosis is not clear a genetic condition, often very rare, has been diagnosed in the family about which it proves difficult to find further information. The role of a genetics specialist (medical geneticist) is purely an advisory one and he/she will not take part in decisions relating to, for example, family planning, prenatal diagnosis, carrier testing or predictive testing. The patient's treating doctor may provide genetic counselling about more common diseases, such as diabetes asthma and other allergies dyslipidaemias cancer when no suggestive evidence exists for its hereditary nature (breast cancer , colorectal cancer ) mental health problems.

The Self-Love Solution: A Simplified Guide for Overcoming Depression and Fulfilling Your Deepest Desires

Self-love is the solution to ALL your problems. I'm not saying that is easy to love yourself fully and unconditionally. No, it is certainly not easy when we have lived most of our lives doing the exact opposite, but through some simple practices, we can begin to turn our lives around into a purely positive direction. We can, by taking baby steps in the direction of self-love, make self-love a habitual way of being. When self-love eventually becomes an automatic habit of ours, we will know what it's like to live an effortless life.